Author Topic: wind charge controller  (Read 142341 times)

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iFred

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wind charge controller
« on: September 19, 2004, 10:40:06 PM »
What ever happened to bioelectrifyer web site?? Any one know?? I disappeared a couple of months ago, never to be heard from again??


In any case, some people have been asking me if I had the circuit, long before the web site disappeared, I copied it.. so if i break any rules here or infringe, I apologize. The information at the time was totally free from the web site, but since it not longer exists I don't think they will mind me doing this.. Here is the web site on the charge controller before it went to digital death... All credits are included. There was no copywrite information anywhere on the web site. By the looks of it, he was giving away the information to help others. (see the bottom of this post)...

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Welcome to the

CIRCUITS MAXIMUS web site!


Gadgets and Gizmo's by

Thomas M. Miller


Amateur Radio WA8YKN

216 East 10th Street

Ashland, Ohio 44805

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BUILD A SIMPLE



CHARGE CONTROLLER


FOR WIND AND SOLAR POWER SYSTEMS


Once our wind generators and solar panels were up and running, the next obvious requirement was some sort of charge controller, since continuous overcharging would boil the electrolyte dry and ruin the expensive battery bank. Several small controllers came bundled with the solar panels, but they were totally unsuitable for wind power use.


Charge controllers intended for solar panels work by monitoring the battery voltage, and once it reaches full charge, the controller simply shorts the solar panel leads together. This doesn't harm the solar panels, but it does waste whatever power they're generating. The energy ends up heating the transistors in the controller.


This type of controller is not ideal for a wind generator, since shorting the output of the genny while it's spinning at high speed will generate a huge current spike, possibly destroying the controller and perhaps even the generator in the process. On the other hand, simply unhooking the generator from the batteries is not a good idea either, since with no load on it, the generator might overspeed in a strong wind and destroy itself.


The ideal solution is to charge the batteries until they reach a full charge, then switch to an alternate load where the energy can be safely handled. While we're at it, this energy should be used for some useful purpose, such as supplementing a water heater or powering a peltier-junction refrigerator, but in a pinch, a bank of 12 volt light bulbs will do.



The above schematic shows the simple charge controller circuit. The incoming battery voltage is divided in half by a pair of 3.3K resistors, so the trip points are adjusted to one-half the desired levels. The actual trip points will depend on your particular batteries, but a good starting point is 14.5 volts for full-charge, and 11.8 volts for discharged. In this case, the trimpots should be adjusted to read 7.25 volts at TP-A and 5.9 volts at TP-B. You will probably need to monitor your battery voltage through several charge - discharge cycles to determine the perfect trip points for your system.


The outputs of the controller are latched, and drive a pair of IFR510 power FETs, which serve as relay drivers. If you use a double-throw relay, only one output is necessary, since the relay can switch the incoming power to either the batteries or the alternate load as required. The second output can be used to switch a small 12 volt DC muffin fan to vent hydrogen gas from the battery enclosure to prevent the danger of explosion when charging the batteries.


The two push-buttons provide a way to toggle the output manually when the battery voltage was in the "null zone" between the trip points. By momentarily pressing one of the buttons, the output state will reverse and latch. A 1K resistor prevents a dead short, just in case someone decides to press both buttons at once!


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The charge controller is built on a small printed circuit board, as shown below. The diagram above shows the component layout. Be sure to install the I.C.s and capacitors correctly, as reversing them will most likely generate a puff of smoke. Terminal blocks are soldered to the board for the incoming 12 volts and for connections to the relay coil.


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...(LEFT) COMPONENTS INSTALLED .... ....(RIGHT) BARE CIRCUIT BOARD...


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Since the incoming power is produced by several different types of surplus solar panels and homebuilt wind generators each producing different voltages, they can't just all be hooked together... each has it's own blocking diode in series with the positive lead. When the battery is charging, each source is pulled down to the battery terminal voltage, so each source contributes whatever current it's capable of producing. Each blocking diode has to be sized for the current that source can generate. The negative lead from each source is connected to ground.



Here's the hookup as it's working here. As long as the batteries are charging I can see the red LED glowing. As soon as the trip voltage is reached, the red LED goes out and the green one comes on, and the power is shunted to the alternate load. This way, no power is wasted.

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FRONT PAGE....


SO WHAT'S THIS WEBSITE?


I'm an engineer by trade, and I also enjoy designing interesting electronic gadgets and gizmos in my spare time. Since I also enjoy writing, I usually combine the two and end up writing articles about interesting electronic gadgets and gizmos. I also like to encourage other people to experiment and build these projects.


Generally, I will design a printed circuit board for all my electronic projects (published either in a magazine or on the web) and I always make that board available for a small fee so that others can duplicate the circuit. I can also offer a few of my designs fully assembled for those who are "soldering iron challenged" but still want to get in on the fun.


Another thing I do is to inject an occasional "editorial." These can range from advice on emergency preparedness to shedding some light on something going on behind our backs, or even a report on a book I find particularly interesting. Hey, it's my web site, and my soapbox, so take it for what it's worth.


In the near future, I intend to work up kits for some of my designs. I'm building a small CNC drilling machine to help in the fabrication of circuit boards. The time-consuming part is writing a good set of instructions. Hopefully, I'll get time to put this project in motion very soon.

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« Last Edit: September 19, 2004, 10:40:06 PM by (unknown) »

iFred

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Re: wind charge controller
« Reply #1 on: September 19, 2004, 10:55:44 PM »


ALSO CHECK THE FOLLOWING WEB SITE


http://www.acs.comcen.com.au/projects1.html


Has many different solar and battery chargers

« Last Edit: September 19, 2004, 10:55:44 PM by (unknown) »

domwild

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Re: wind charge controller
« Reply #2 on: September 20, 2004, 05:38:40 PM »
Thanks for that. Have been chasing this circuit before and got nowhere. This may or may not be the same as the load controller on Hugh Piggott's site. He also mentions that the two loads should be about one half each of the total capacity of the mill. Once I get my mill going then i will contact you again re board. Nice work.


Dominic

« Last Edit: September 20, 2004, 05:38:40 PM by (unknown) »

eformx

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Re: wind charge controller
« Reply #3 on: October 05, 2004, 10:40:59 AM »
Can I buy this controller or something similar?
« Last Edit: October 05, 2004, 10:40:59 AM by (unknown) »

suns10

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Re: wind charge controller
« Reply #4 on: October 09, 2004, 06:05:47 PM »
This looks like a very simple charge controller that will switch to a dump load when the batteries are full.  I like the idea of no electronics to fail and a fairly high amp rating 50 Amps.  What do you all think?


http://www.hydrogenappliances.com/batteryregulator.html

« Last Edit: October 09, 2004, 06:05:47 PM by (unknown) »

eformx

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Re: wind charge controller
« Reply #5 on: October 13, 2004, 06:26:16 PM »
This item looks like a good choice.  It looks like it senses the voltage in the battery, if a top limit is reached, it opens the circuit to the load (like a 12 volt heating element), diverting the excess power in the battery (anything over 14.5 volts) to the device until the top limit is reduced.


If this is the case, then it really doesn't matter what voltage and current you stuff into the battery, the battery voltage never exceeds 14.5 volts.


Does this sound right?


Rob

« Last Edit: October 13, 2004, 06:26:16 PM by (unknown) »

suns10

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Re: wind charge controller
« Reply #6 on: October 16, 2004, 06:49:56 PM »
Thanks for the reply..

I am new to this and no expert but I think that is true as long as the dump load is large enough to dump the same or more power than the wind generator and solar panel are delivering to the batteries.  Once the lower limit on the contoller is reached due to the batteries discharging to 13 volts the dump load is switched off and batteries charge again.


I will be putting a 200 watt windmill for battery charging in at my very remote cabin and I think an item like this will work well in freezing tempuratures as the cabin is in northern Minnesota and not heated in the winter unless occupied.  Other regulators have digital displays and other electronics and I worry they may fail in -20 degrees F.


I'm not sure what size of dump load to put in place however.  I think a 12V 500 watt light or heater load should be OK. I want to get it right because I can be away for weeks at a time.


Thank you,

« Last Edit: October 16, 2004, 06:49:56 PM by (unknown) »

(unknown)

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Re: wind charge controller
« Reply #7 on: December 23, 2008, 02:03:44 PM »
Hi all, I am new to this site and I have a question about the simple charge controller,

I would like to know if this circuit can be used in a 24 volt system.

if not what should be changed to make it work.

thanks all, AZ
« Last Edit: December 23, 2008, 02:03:44 PM by (unknown) »

(unknown)

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Re: wind charge controller
« Reply #8 on: May 19, 2009, 09:12:06 AM »
This is great information, but I have troubles figuring out how to mount the components to a circuit board - how do you make a circuit board and figure out the placement of the components. I know how to solder and understand circuit diagrams but how to mount and configure components ... need help!
« Last Edit: May 19, 2009, 09:12:06 AM by (unknown) »

(unknown)

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Re: wind charge controller
« Reply #9 on: July 30, 2009, 12:39:26 PM »
Would anyone happen to have a parts list for this controller? It looks pretty easy to build, but I'm not really sure what all the parts are called and don't want to put the wrong ones in and let the magic smoke out.
« Last Edit: July 30, 2009, 12:39:26 PM by (unknown) »

ghurd

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Re: wind charge controller
« Reply #10 on: July 30, 2009, 01:43:07 PM »
This Post is 5 Years Old!


The controller shown here was obsolete at the time.


I hate to blow my own horn, but my controller is better, cheaper, easier, and available in a kit.


http://www.fieldlines.com/story/2007/8/24/172521/889


http://ghurd.info/


G-

« Last Edit: July 30, 2009, 01:43:07 PM by (unknown) »
www.ghurd.info<<<-----Information on my Controller

Airstream

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Re: wind charge controller
« Reply #11 on: July 31, 2009, 09:53:22 AM »



(Apologies to the Admiral)

« Last Edit: July 31, 2009, 09:53:22 AM by (unknown) »

ghurd

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Re: wind charge controller
« Reply #12 on: July 31, 2009, 10:33:33 AM »
I KNEW is should have copyrighted the images of...

Me with my controller!  (LOL, in my wife's dreams!)

G-

« Last Edit: July 31, 2009, 10:33:33 AM by (unknown) »
www.ghurd.info<<<-----Information on my Controller

(unknown)

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Re: wind charge controller
« Reply #13 on: July 31, 2009, 11:37:51 AM »
That does look like a better cotroller, but I need to ask how much current it can handle? The controller poated before could handle an unlimited amount of current easily, because of an external relay it powers, I don't see any relay hookups on your controller unless I missed it somehow. The controller might be outdated, but so is this computer that I am posting on. Still has Windows 95 on it, yet it is one heck of a workhorse.
« Last Edit: July 31, 2009, 11:37:51 AM by (unknown) »

ghurd

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Re: wind charge controller
« Reply #14 on: July 31, 2009, 01:06:11 PM »
The ghurd controller handles 6A of individual load per power mosfet.

Want to dump more power?  Add more power mosfets and loads.

Think of the power mosfets as relays that can handle 6A.


"Unlimited Current" is limited by the current the relay can handle.

There are some ghurd controllers handling over 1200W.

A relay based system is not likely to handle 100A of 12VDC long if connected as shown in the original post.


I do not recommend my controller with power such as 1200W.  A system that size would generally benefit from a superior 3-stage temperature compensated factory made controller.


The controller shown in the original post has some serious issues.


First-  If you can not figure out the parts shown in the schematic and know how a power mosfet works, it will likely cost more than a factory made controller if ALL the parts costs related to building it are considered (S&H from a couple places, PCB chemicals and boards {and their extra 'hazardous materials' S&H}, etc).


Second, A & B -  It will be nearly impossible to get the size of the dump load correct.


A- If the dump load handles too small a load, the windmill runs away because it is severely underloaded, resulting in breaking off blades and other catastrophic failures.

Easy to find info about run away windmills and broken blades.


B- If the dump load handles too large a load, the windings will burn up in a good wind, and a good wind is when the system will be dumping.

That is something that does not get mentioned too often, because not many people think using that type of controller is a good idea.

The concept is roughly the same as the Oatly controller kits which do things like this,

http://www.fieldlines.com/story/2008/11/8/63523/3798


Third- The bioelectrifyer controller was not really very good at the time.

It could have been good with just a few tweaks.

Anything that for the control operates relays, slow enough to not kill the relay, is pretty much by definition, NOT a good controller.


Windows 3.1 was fine.  It did a lot of things with very little to work with by todays standards.

It did not try to destroy everything it was connected to.

But I do recall spending 2~3 weeks pay for half a meg of RAM.

And the HDD was nowhere near large enough to hold photo's from an obsolete SD card, let alone a currently $5 SD card.

A brand new $385 Model A was state of the art at the time, but today nobody would try to drive one from NYC to LA.

I am only saying that we are talking about $15.50 (delivered), in todays prices, for something better.

G-

« Last Edit: July 31, 2009, 01:06:11 PM by (unknown) »
www.ghurd.info<<<-----Information on my Controller

(unknown)

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Re: wind charge controller
« Reply #15 on: August 28, 2009, 07:32:34 PM »
Here is the parts list for the old relay activating controller.  Everything is available from digikey.com.


Before I "discovered" Ghurd' electronic voltage shunt I spent a couple of hours figuring out the parts list for the old controller, so I might as well list it here.  The grand total is $50.20 plus about $6 shipping for everything.  That will make two units, so roughly it is twice the cost.  It includes everything except the PC board etchant.  This also contains ONE "muffin fan" which really is not part of the controller but an additional load it uses and over $8 of the total.  It is used.  So for anyone who wants to play with vintage stuff, have fun- here it is (well really, Go Ghurd):


Quantity    Digi-Key#    Customer Reference    Unit Price    Price



  1.     497-1340-5-ND    4001 14DIP 6.8MA STM    0.60000    $0.60
  2.     MC14001UBCPGOS-ND    4001 14DIP 3.4MA ON    0.52000    $0.52
  3.     497-1589-5-ND    LM339N 14DIP STM    0.60000    $1.20
  4.     AE10012-ND    14PIN DIP OPEN SOCKET AU    0.79000    $3.16
  5.     3M5462-ND    14PIN DIP SOCKET OPEN 3M    0.18000    $0.36
  6.     490-2989-ND    10K CER TRIMPOT LEADS OFFCTR    1.31000    $5.24
  7.     IRF510PBF-ND    POWER FET IRF510    1.14000    $4.56
  8.     P5161-ND    10 UF ELECTROLYTIC CAPACITOR    0.07700    $0.77
  9.     3.3KH-ND    3.3K RES 1/2W    0.05800    $0.58
  10.     560QBK-ND    560 OHM RES 1/4W    0.06400    $0.32
  11.     1.0KQBK-ND    1.0K OHM RES 1/4W    0.06400    $0.32
  12.     100KQBK-ND    100K ohm RES 1/4W    0.06400    $0.32
  13.     10KH-ND    10K ohm res 1/2W    0.05800    $0.29
  14.     PB879-ND    SPDT RELAY 10A 12V(COIL)    1.82000    $3.64
  15.     259-1353-ND    MUFFIN FAN 12VDC 0.6W    8.18000    $8.18
  16.     EG2015-ND    MOMENTARY PB SWITCHES    1.78000    $7.12
  17.     ED1601-ND    TERMINAL BLOCKS 2-WIRE    0.46000    $1.84
  18.     F063-ND    Fuse clips 10A spring brass, tinned    0.25000    $1.00
  19.     160-1701-ND    RED LED 635NM 90MCD 20MA 2V    0.07300    $0.73
  20.     160-1702-ND    GREEN LED 60MCD 20MA 2.2V    0.07300    $0.73
  21.     PC6-C-ND    PC BOARD    6.04000    $6.04
  22.     60802-2-ND    TERMINAL PIN (VOLTMETER)    0.08400    $0.84
  23.     F2677-ND    FUSE (5X20MM) 250V 1A FAST    0.36800    $1.84


Best,

Flywheel
« Last Edit: August 28, 2009, 07:32:34 PM by (unknown) »