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Homebrewed Electricity => Other => Topic started by: JW on April 22, 2012, 01:55:25 PM

Title: Steam Engine!!!
Post by: JW on April 22, 2012, 01:55:25 PM
I have been working on steam engines as a hobby since I was first ASE Certified as a Master Automobile Techician at age 20, 18 years ago, the video im going to display is like a 12th generation unit, and has finalized the design of the 'APEX' prototype flashsteam engine,

 in order to get this far, I had to develope and patent a 'varible lift direct injection valve as I have patent numbers of- US 6,928,992  7,552,715

The Injection Valve is used to run and throttle the engine. The injector handles 2400psi [dont try this at home]

ACB R&D 2004


The 4cycle steam engine(my development) is open source, also there is a forum there http://www.flashsteam.com/flashsteam_forum/index.php

The latest design uses superheated steam aspired into an insulated cylinder and head, the 4cycle engine uses direct water injection, that is injected/flashed/released into the compressed superheated mass of steam compressed in the cylinder.

This is anticipated to be the most safe/user friendly application on the modern steam engine design. Since the engine block is used as both expander and boiler. Of the $250,000.00 invested it should be possible to make a working prototype, as always the team that makes the working model can boast open source development. (meaning of the 250,000 development spent, all data learned is shared currently)


Main website here- http://www.flashsteam.com

Ive been a user here on the FL forum for a long time and figure you guys know ive been at this steam stuff awhile and could use some new users on my forum, but again, there isnt really much going on with steam... I have personally funded all development, and there are no sponsors or investors...


-edit- (everyone can edit there posts for 4 hours after making any post)
Just incase you wanted to know how good the burner looking thing works-






-

Title: Re: Steam Engine!!!
Post by: DanB on April 24, 2012, 09:29:33 AM
Do you have some notion about the efficiency of the system?  I've tried to get my head around that with my generators.  My 'listeroid' is around 20% from fuel to electricity, my antique steam engine is generally between 2-4% depending on outside temperature and the 'mood' of the operator.
Title: Re: Steam Engine!!!
Post by: JW on April 24, 2012, 10:25:59 AM
Hi Dan,

At this point actual efficiency from fuel burned to output in watts is unknown. Im hoping to get this evaluated with the next working prototype. A WAG at this point is someplace approching 30% total system. The aspect of this thats most interesting to me is expander eff. because it could be a major leap for steam engines.

Here's a quote from another fellow who has vistied with me and I have visited, he is very active in the steam engine community.
http://kimmelsteam.com

Quote
Steam power is intrinsically inefficient because of the loss of heat used to boil water, to affect the phase change, because of the high latent heat of vaporization. When steam is condensed back into water, something necessary to do so it can be pumped back into the boiler to keep the process going, all of the latent heat of vaporization is lost. This is why there is a low thermodynamic efficiency intrinsic to a steam cycle. Needless to say many people have devoted much time to getting around basic laws of thermodynamics. It is not easy to do and a book can be written about the attempts. Davoud and Tinker and Jeremy Holmes have worked on re-using steam without condensing it.

The 4 cycle steam engine recompresses some of its exhaust steam, the only other engine design that does this is a Uniflow (Williams engine) however only a percentage of the exhaust stroke (usually no higher than 1/3rd) is compressed.

Intitally the goal was to make a working flashsteam engine, so that steam thats compressed contains the surplus of heat needed to flash injected water. The compressed steam is superheated before it re-enters the engine. Most conventional engine designs for steam engines are a 2 stroke configuration whereas this is not possible, the exeption being the uniflow which does this on its exaust stroke.

The other advantage to the 4 cycle steam engine is boiler control, since it uses a monotube type of arrangment basically a superheater. Traditionally the use of monotube boiler's is difficult.
Title: Re: Steam Engine!!!
Post by: Ken Helmick on May 11, 2012, 05:47:58 AM
Besides the losses due to latent heat of vaporization, there is another factor to consider, by their nature external combustion engines just tend to be less efficient.   This efficiency disadvantage has nothing to do with thermodynamic cycles and everything to do with plain old mechanics.  External combustion, by definition, means the heat must flow through a wall of some material to reach the working fluid, thereby limiting  peak working fluid temperature to something a bit less than the hottest temperature the wall can tolerate.  IC engines can create temperatures well in excess of what the wall can tolerate just so long as the wall is cooled enough to prevent damage. Thus, the best steam or Stirling engine may have working fluid temperatures as high as 1200 F if the very best and most costly materials are used whereas an IC engine may run double that figure with a water cooled aluminum cylinder.

The upshot is that a simple EC cycle will probably not compete with a simple IC cycle on the basis of pure efficiency; the designer needs to look for an edge..or three.  Such edges may include thermal recycling, use of lower cost alternate fuels and cogeneration.

Regards,

Ken
Title: Re: Steam Engine!!!
Post by: GreatBallofFire on June 07, 2012, 06:23:01 PM
Congratulations on getting something built and running, that first step is one that most people never accomplish. On the other hand, just the phrase "superheated steam" makes me nervous. Unless its inside of a megawatt steam turbine, I want to be as far away as possible from anything running on superheated steam.

-Mark
Title: Re: Steam Engine!!!
Post by: JW on June 07, 2012, 07:08:41 PM
Superheated steam does not have to be dangerious, it can exist at 5psi, the key is the energy content... Supercritical steam, is not live/superheated steam, it does not have the btu energy content that superheated steam does have.

With regards to a 4cycle steam expander, the cylinder wall and cyl-head are insufficient to evaporate the remaining 50% flash steam produced from supercritical working fluid...

The compressed superheated steam full stroke volume aids in heat thruput of the preheated injected water.

JW
Title: Re: Steam Engine!!!
Post by: JW on June 07, 2012, 07:15:27 PM
Gordon Lightfoot - Sundown.
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-02VrChRqpc

Everything But The Girl - And I miss You
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-C3NlpaCFgI

I can attach the gif animation of the engine cycle without the speed control, perhaps tomorrow.


jw
Title: Re: Steam Engine!!!
Post by: JW on June 08, 2012, 11:47:26 AM
When I first started to work with the engine cycle, it was intended to be a flash steam engine. There are are all sorts of problems with regards to making a flash steam engine run.

Most who attempt this intend inject superheated water under very high pressure such as 3000psi. When this is done in actual practice its discovered that in a best case scenario 50% of that injected water will expand into steam. So the engine has problems running.

Some have got decent results by heating the cylinder head aswell. With the 4 cycle concept there is an intake and compression stroke, the engine can aspire live steam and use this additional heat source to reduce heating requirements for the injected water. If the steam thats aspired under low pressure is superheated the engine is easier to make run. And the requirement of using supercritical injected water is reduced.

Title: Re: Steam Engine!!!
Post by: Badger on July 03, 2012, 12:00:21 PM


The 4 cycle steam engine recompresses some of its exhaust steam, the only other engine design that does this is a Uniflow (Williams engine) however only a percentage of the exhaust stroke (usually no higher than 1/3rd) is compressed.


Are you speaking of Williams turbine engine?  What about a Wankel engine?  Less rpm's to wear parts, but still a continuous flow...   Just curious if you've had experience with those.
Title: Re: Steam Engine!!!
Post by: wcb on September 28, 2012, 05:47:01 PM
On the other hand, just the phrase "superheated steam" makes me nervous. Unless its inside of a megawatt steam turbine, I want to be as far away as possible from anything running on superheated steam.

Is superheated steam so very different from "superheated" antifreeze in our cars?  15psi, ~260 degrees right?  It will burn the heck out of you, but its not really so exotic or dangerous. 

back to topic, very cool engine!  dont have time to really look over your info now but its on my bedside table so to speak  :)

Title: Re: Steam Engine!!!
Post by: GreatBallofFire on September 28, 2012, 06:15:09 PM
On the other hand, just the phrase "superheated steam" makes me nervous. Unless its inside of a megawatt steam turbine, I want to be as far away as possible from anything running on superheated steam.

Is superheated steam so very different from "superheated" antifreeze in our cars?  15psi, ~260 degrees right?  It will burn the heck out of you, but its not really so exotic or dangerous. 

back to topic, very cool engine!  dont have time to really look over your info now but its on my bedside table so to speak  :)

Actually, there is a very big difference between antifreeze that is 15 psi and over 200 degrees and superheated steam since the system in the car is very unlikely to have a catastrophic failure compared to most boilers. There is a reason that boilers were banned in a lot of areas and it was because of the potential high risk of rapid expansion from a catastrophic failure. Look at the cooling system of a car, if it starts to overheat and the pressure builds up, the cap opens and a small amount of liquid instantly vaporizes and takes some excess heat with it. This can continue until the system runs dry and the motor finally quits or dies. Compared that to a boiler with "superheated steam" and see if the same results happens, maybe or maybe not. I'll take the antifreeze everyday of the week and twice on Sunday.

But, let's get back to the great work that the original poster has shown us instead of discussing what doesn't really matter in the first place.

-Mark
Title: Re: Steam Engine!!!
Post by: JW on September 28, 2012, 07:29:06 PM
Quote from: GreatBallofFire
But, let's get back to the great work that the original poster has shown us instead of discussing what doesn't really matter in the first place. -MarK

This is probably the best source on the topic

http://www.flashsteam.com/steam_proj3.htm

Check out the animation and let me know.


JW
Title: Re: Steam Engine!!!
Post by: JW on October 18, 2012, 01:46:13 PM
This is an ongoing project to beat the Land Speed Record for a steam powered vehicle, Steam Speed America


The current record is held by "INSPIRATION"

http://www.steamcar.co.uk


I know Chuk and wish him good luck taking the new world record.
 http://www.steamspeedamerica.com

JW
Title: Re: Steam Engine!!!
Post by: JW on June 15, 2013, 12:08:58 PM
here's an update on Chuk W.

[attach=1]



[attach=2]


Best JW
Title: Re: Steam Engine!!!
Post by: JW on March 28, 2015, 04:42:33 PM
Well this year at the Bonneville salt track, Chuk wrecked out at around 160mph. The accident was very sevier although Chuk made it out with minor injuries. The stream liner is totaled.

Here is a picture of my latest work on my stationary steam engine. Im doing some tweeks and well see where it leads :)
[attach=1] 
Title: Re: Steam Engine!!!
Post by: JW on July 01, 2015, 07:19:35 PM
Im being solicited by a Chinese company to make my injector valves...

Im considering it, so my valves will be made in china.

At this time its up in the air, I have not committed to manufacture in china.

I could get the injectors built from a company that's US based but in a small orders. Its part of the problem as the Chinese would be good for large batches.

 L912 injector  Manufacture is doing an excellent job, witch will get the injectors to help others describe.

L912 injector test1
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=T2TJQSOHgx8

 
Title: Re: Steam Engine!!!
Post by: JW on December 05, 2015, 07:18:02 PM
ACB R&D 2004
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jZasy9XNbYU



Title: Re: Steam Engine!!!
Post by: JW on February 18, 2017, 05:57:27 PM
Everything with the Chinese manufacture worked out good I now have enough parts to make 100 injectors. I had to pay a import tax which was about $1,000.


Im on one of my older computers and have access to some old photos but this is a recent picture of me.

 
Title: Re: Steam Engine!!!
Post by: JW on March 13, 2017, 06:19:57 PM
Im getting close to having the next phase complete

(http://flashsteam.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/01/%5EAA8C4FEA0A7B0D8F8673A5B7C5F32562872E290E0B117D1462%5Epimgpsh_fullsize_distr-218x300.jpg)
Title: Re: Steam Engine!!!
Post by: JW on May 11, 2017, 07:27:08 PM
Jeremys Cornburner.mp4
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IKDSX3lMasw&t=81s

L912 injector test1
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=T2TJQSOHgx8

JW
Title: Re: Steam Engine!!!
Post by: Mary B on May 12, 2017, 06:53:20 PM
Corn burns hot but watch out for the nitric acid it produces...
Title: Re: Steam Engine!!!
Post by: JW on May 12, 2017, 07:10:22 PM
 I use a stainless steel screen that is a consumable on the corn burner stage. I works well as a catalyst.     
Title: Re: Steam Engine!!!
Post by: JW on June 01, 2017, 08:00:44 PM
I have really got the solid fuel burner working good here

Jeremys Cornburner.mp4
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IKDSX3lMasw
Title: Re: Steam Engine!!!
Post by: JW on June 03, 2017, 12:58:44 PM
test


In the video of my last post  I have good performance of the burner.  But im using shop air so its not a mobile app.

The performance using a 12 volt blower is not the same.

I need some help finding a high performance 12 volt blower. Im using a 12 volt vacuum made by dewalt.

Im open to any suggestions I will edit this post as I get more details
Title: Re: Steam Engine!!!
Post by: JW on June 03, 2017, 01:42:02 PM
In these pictures two 12 volt vacuum are used. The Dewalt is rated for 20 volt the other is only 12 volt. I hooked it up using 24 volts and it ran for about 30 seconds and burned up. Im hoping to use a RC motor but it has to be rated to 12 volts.

I will do a burn test with the dewalt running 24 volts just to see what happens later this evening. 
Title: Re: Steam Engine!!!
Post by: JW on June 03, 2017, 09:17:25 PM

I was able to get the Dewalt blower running at 24 volts. Amazingly the motor did not burn up and I
got good results with the increase impeller speed.
Title: Re: Steam Engine!!!
Post by: JW on June 04, 2017, 12:09:14 AM
http://jet.com/product/detail/6b95c520ec974386a6a1baba4a6783fb?jcmp=pla:bng:nj_electronics:electronics_car_vehicle_electronics:na:PLA_276072328_1222656939258542_kwd-4580015685521663:na:na:na:2&code=PLA15&pid=kenshoo_int&c=276072328&is_retargeting=true&clickid=53ddbad4-492e-44fb-bf32-221d350e181b

this is the motor im going to upgrade too
Title: Re: Steam Engine!!!
Post by: Mary B on June 04, 2017, 02:11:07 PM
Add a speed controller to the burner feed and the blower and you can control your boiler temps!
Title: Re: Steam Engine!!!
Post by: JW on June 04, 2017, 05:09:06 PM
Here's the PWM speed controller that I have got.

https://www.amazon.com/Yeeco-Controller-Variable-Regulator-Protection/dp/B00RXKNT5S/ref=sr_1_9?ie=UTF8&qid=1496617007&sr=8-9&keywords=12v+pwm+motor+controller

the burner needs as much as top speed so im using as much the blower can provide. Im and its working as fastest speed as possible.

I had doubt's that I could not achieve the performance as the shop air. So the blower is now catching up to the performance. 

 
Title: Re: Steam Engine!!!
Post by: eigenmorph on August 03, 2017, 04:08:03 AM
Would it be out of order to suggest that your blower motor may be maxxed out because the impeller load is insufficient. Perhaps fitting a pair of impellers in parallel will provide improved airflow from the same motor at lower rpm. If the impeller is stalling at the high rpm, then putting a pair in series might be an alternative.

Something I came across recently in an old Model Engineer magazine (No 3209 10 Jan 1962) was a Brayton engine from the late 1800s. One version used steam injection along with the combustion fuel. The engine was basically an early supercharged 2 stroke. It may not look much through modern eyes, but Mr Brayton had a good idea.

All the best

Jim Cahill   
Title: Re: Steam Engine!!!
Post by: JW on August 04, 2017, 07:49:59 PM
Quote
If the impeller is stalling at the high rpm, then putting a pair in series might be an alternative.

Yes this is a valid point.

With the speed control module I have found that lowering the impeller speed the air grabs better.

I have a bench test 5 stage turbine to max airflow and this solves impeller speed stall problem, and defines ideal air flow for prototypes.
Title: Re: Steam Engine!!!
Post by: eigenmorph on August 07, 2017, 03:51:31 AM
You refer to a 5 stage turbine.

There may be a difference of terminology between the US and UK. To us, a "Turbine" operates on a favourable pressure gradient, whereas an "Impeller" or "Compressor" operates against an adverse pressure gradient. For that reason airflow breaks down on the latter much sooner than on a turbine. Think of axial flow gas turbines. You will know that they have many more compressor stages than turbine stages. The reason is the pressure gradients.
 
Title: Re: Steam Engine!!!
Post by: george65 on August 07, 2017, 07:53:07 AM

Is this blower to fan up a Corn fired burner?
If so, why not use something with a much higher energy density and easier to control like oil? You could have any output you wanted and an extremely high turndown ratio as well.

I have done 200Kw burners that are pretty compact and could produce that output from 12V.
Title: Re: Steam Engine!!!
Post by: eigenmorph on August 11, 2017, 07:05:29 AM
Perhaps JW is looking at situations where corn is available. In this locality of Ireland the farmer can expect about 40 Euro per ton for good grain. He might get a few Euros for the straw. Input costs are likely to be 60%   of that without considering the farmer's time or weather risks. Irrespective of its energy density, burning the crop directly can make more sense, provided the energy can be utilised.

I have to say that my preference is to produce Alcohol from the crop and burn the spent mash. The brewing and distillation processes are an excellent application for low grade heat and the product can be stored or sold. Enquiries I made with the Revenue Commissioners some years ago were not at all discouraging.

 

Title: Re: Steam Engine!!!
Post by: JW on August 11, 2017, 02:16:18 PM
Hi All,

The reason I burn kernel corn is because its really cheep, also it burns clean. I figured this out the first time I burnt kerosene its REALY expensive.

I received the 2stage turbine today man that thing moves some air. Ive got to modify it so that I can change the speed of the blower. This is a blower that you would use the spray a HVLP painting. Although is is powered by 120vac It will set a benchmark that I will have to duplicate using 12vdc.  Ive completely gotten away from shop air (using piston air pump). 
Title: Re: Steam Engine!!!
Post by: JW on September 21, 2017, 06:04:39 PM
I have had sometime to digest all this.

Quote
If the impeller is stalling at the high rpm

Well I tried the multistage turbine for HVLP paint spraying and Im getting better results with a RoadPro RPSC-807 10" 12V Super Wet/Dry Vacuum with 1 Gallon Canister.

what I did was reverse the motor plate and turned it into a blower. I wonder about optimizing the impeller to prevent stall. I think Im doing good with what I have, but I would love to use a custom impeller that would press on a 1/8th shaft. If anyone does 3D printing let me know, I will make a video of the performance im getting with the stock impeller. And can provide the basic impeller im using.
Title: Re: Steam Engine!!!
Post by: JW on November 01, 2017, 05:24:25 PM
Have had several evolutions with my blowers, and am working on a final design will post some pictures soon  :)
Title: Re: Steam Engine!!!
Post by: eigenmorph on November 10, 2017, 07:12:03 AM
Good to hear you've been making progress. Looking forward to seeing some pictures.
All the best.
Jim.

DamonHD edit: Jim: we generally have a no links (esp commercial) until ~50 posts.  Yours is fine on the commercial front, but could we keep it in the sig to avoid cluttering posts with unrelated links?  Ta.
Title: Re: Steam Engine!!!
Post by: JW on November 10, 2017, 03:55:25 PM
Ive been having some difficulty getting the parts "just right" before final assembly. The picture with the fire is not at a blue flame and is common during start up.






Title: Re: Steam Engine!!!
Post by: JW on November 30, 2017, 05:17:00 PM
Testing out the inline attachments

here are some pictures

[attach=1]
This is my 200amp TIG welder Its AC/DC I weld a lot of aluminum with it.

[attach=2]
I installed a rollup door for the area I work on my steam engine, There is a concrete slab where I roll things out side.

[attach=3]
This is a steam traction engine I spotted and took a pic

[attach=4]
This is a steam condenser that I made

[attach=5]
This is a mockup were im assembling the air injection system


 
 
Title: Re: Steam Engine!!!
Post by: SparWeb on November 30, 2017, 05:49:36 PM
You're going to cook your camera, taking pictures like the one of your steam injector!  :D

I'm trying to get a judgement of where you're going with your mock-up. 
It seems you already have the six tubes welded to the manifold, so what does the flex hose represent?
Title: Re: Steam Engine!!!
Post by: JW on November 30, 2017, 06:25:41 PM
The first generation of air injection/afterburner used compressed shop air, I had a valve to regulate flow. The first system was considered HPLV. It worked fantastic... The problem is that it was not stand alone, since it needed shop air.

The system worked like this, compressed air was heated really hot with steel tubing in the fire and dispersed into the 6 nozzles the nozzles were shrouded in 3/8 tubing. The actual supply of air discharged thru 1/8 copper tube. The preheating of the air injected was sufficient to burn carbon dust and made an excellent fire and a blue flame. The key is air preheating.

The air injection mock up uses 3/8 dia discharge nozzles compared to the 1/8 tube. The corrugated pipe is to preheat the air since it is directly in the fire stream and the ring that supports the 6 nozzles is also heated. But it is a LPHV system. I use a 12 volt blower/impeller for feeding air to the system and it makes the burner mobile using a 12 volt battery, to control flow I use a PWM speed controller.

   
+
Title: Re: Steam Engine!!!
Post by: george65 on November 30, 2017, 07:08:05 PM
I have never burned corn but I have burned a LOT of veg oil and made a lot of burners using different principals for that.
I am interested in your belief the pre heated air makes a difference to the fire and why?
People telling me all the time on my YT channel about air preheating but I have not been able work out any benefit other than a small increase in transition speed from preheat to operating temp which is negligible anyway. Certainly whilst burning there is no difference/ benefit at all.

Any heat in the air is removed as it were from the fire so the net output will be the same. In my burners there is so much excess heat, ( things run red hot in normal operation) that air preheating serves no purpose. But you are not burning oil or working on the retained heat principal my burners work on so I'm interested to learn more about what the pincipals involved with what you are doing are.

From your pictures it seems the corn burns under the air injection nozzles, is that correct?
Have you also worked out what the KW heating value is from your burner?  That engine looks like a LOT of thermal mass and water to get up to temp.
I would think you'd be wanting significant output to get it up to steam in a timely manner.

I'd love to be able to throw one of my burners at something like a steam engine.  My small burners do 200Kw+ and the largest I have verified is 600KW but I have taken it over 1000 only didn't accurately measure it.  There really is no limit to what they can put out other than practacality. Even throwing 50Kw at a metal melting furnace tends to melt the furnace itself.
I had a heat exchanger that came out of a gas boiler that heated an Olympic size pool and was rated at 200Kw. I over powered that pretty easily ( and scarily!)
A steam engine I think would be a great use for one of these burners and probably be able to set a record for going from dead cold to full pressure.  :0)

I have also used 12V blowers on my burners. They were boat bilge blowers and had them on a PWM as well although for my use, I pretty much ran the things flat out anyway and the controller was only used to regulate the start-up air.... which I could do every bit as well with a piece of cardboard over the inlet of the blower as a choke.

Air preheating aside, I think your burner would work well for oil if it were inverted and placed in a deep pan.  If you don't get enough heat with corn,  I'm thinking you should be able to get at least 100Kw with that setup on oil.  You'd get a lot more with a bigger blower.  An option may be to use a couple of batteries, a 12/24V inverter and a 110/ 220V blower.  My favourites are those used for jumping castles but they may be a bit bulky for your needs. They are cheap off fleabay though.  In any case there are certainly a lot more available in mains power than 12V.

That said, a lot of hair-dryers  use 12V motors and as well as doing good volume, they also by design do good air pressure. With the convoluted tube you are using of  smallish diameter, pressure is a consideration as well and  high speed fans are much better at that than something like most 12V blowers. You could also use more than one hairdryer if needed as they could be modified to be pretty compact once you took away the heating elements, switches and superfluous housing.

As you are preheating the air, could you use steam once the boiler was up to speed for your burner air?  I imagine a 1'/4 line at even 50 PSI and set up in an inducer fashion to pull in more air and drop the pressure would give a real good airflow. The steam should not be a worry as it will remain above condensing temps. If this could be made workable, You'd only need the blower to raise steam on once you had, the engine could be totally self sufficient.
Can the corn be burned on a grate like wood or coal? ( with a smaller mesh of course. )

Just an idea but I'd be very interested to know more on your thoughts about the preheated air and it's effect and what sort of KW output you are getting from burning corn.
Title: Re: Steam Engine!!!
Post by: JW on November 30, 2017, 07:48:33 PM
You make some good points, cant list them all, meaning I agree with your observations but I can do my best to make a decent overview.

Quote
Corn weighs 56 pounds/bushel and has a heat value when dried to 15% moisture content of about 7,000 Btu/lb or 300,000 Btu/bu. In other words, assuming a furnace or boiler efficiency of 75%, one bushel is equal to 2.9 gallons of #2 fuel oil, 4 ccf of natural gas or 4.4 gallons of propane.

Quote
Burning Shelled Corn --A Renewable Fuel Source]

http://www.neo.ne.gov/neq_online/july2006/cornbtu.pdf (http://www.neo.ne.gov/neq_online/july2006/cornbtu.pdf)


This is a copy of a fully operation of a advanced burner, its my patent application which was denied.
http://flashsteam.com/corn-burners-solid-fuel-burners

The question is how many pounds of corn is burned per hour.